Mars Metal™ Sheet Lead
Mars Metal™ offers Sheet Lead for many applications that include:
Mars Metal™ provides Sheet Lead with a consistent and high density manufactured from pure lead conforming to ASTM B-29, B-749 and Federal QQ-L-201F, QQ-L-171E. We use only the purest lead available. Our sheet lead is 99.94% pure lead. Absolutely no refining is performed in the manufacturing of our sheet lead. Mars Metal™ is only interested in providing its customers with the highest quality sheet lead available in the market place today.
The Versatility Of Sheet Lead and Its Uses
With Sheet Lead being the most malleable of common metals, it can be easily shaped, formed, bent and/or easily cut to suit all applications. Our sheet lead is extremely resistant to corrosion from the atmosphere, salt water, and most industrial chemicals. It is ideal for making corrosion-resistant gaskets, lead lining tanks, reducing sound in rooms and replacing metal flashing in roofs. With its high density and flexibility it becomes superior in shielding rooms from radiation against x-rays and gamma radiation. Sheet Lead is built into a variety of structures, such as walls, doors, window frames and cabinetry to provide the necessary shielding protection. In waterproofing applications the sheet membranes are installed on-site, then burned (welded) with same-composition lead burning bar to affect, a long-lasting, impermeable barrier. With its high "limpness" (low stiffness) and high internal damping capacity it becomes excellent barrier material to block the transmission of sound, and for isolating equipment from mechanical vibration.
Since Sheet Lead can easily be shaped with little effort at ambient temperatures without the need for periodic softening or annealing it does not work harden. It therefore can be readily manipulated with standard hand tools without the risk of fracture. As with most other commodities, sheet lead is usually sold by the pound and is available in rolled or sheet form.
Mars stocks the most common four thickness as follows:
Our stock sheets are available in sheet sizes 48" wide x 120" long or 1219.2 mm wide x 3048 mm long. For the convenience and cost savings in freight the three smaller sizes are sold in rolled form and the larger size is in flat sheet form.
Mars Metal™ offers Sheet lead as laminated panels, adhesive bonded to such materials like plywood, gypsum board, and other supporting materials. Since Sheet Lead has very little inherent structural strength, most applications require that the Sheet Lead be supported in some fashion, or that the sheet lead be laminated to provide a more rigid building material. This type of shielding is found in hospitals, medical and industrial x-ray installations.
Since Sheet Lead can't suit all applications because the appropriate sizes are not always available, then Mars will manufacturer cast lead radiation shielded products and assemblies. We have the capabilities of casting lead from simple blocks to complex nuclear shielding applications. Working with our customers requirements MarShield™ will create all the necessary tooling or molds to make that one-of-a-kind cast shielding product. Mars offers quick turnaround time on all sheet lead. With its large warehouse of Sheet Lead most orders can be shipped out on the same day.
Sheet Lead Installation Guideline
Mars Metal™ recommends the use of Sheet Lead that is factory bonded to drywall/gypsum board, lath, or plywood for wall covering. This allows the lead to remain rigid and flat during the installation and insures a continuous meeting edge if installed correctly. Where Sheet Lead must be used on its own then the following guidelines may be used.
Certain criteria must be considered for the coverage to each wall or surface that meets the site physicist's recommendations.
Appropriate Sheet Lead Sizes are as follows:
16 LB. Per Square foot or 1/4" thick lead is not recommended due to the heavy weights while handling. It is much easier to use multiple layers of a smaller size of sheet lead than anything over 8 LB. or 1/8" thick.
For 1/32" thick Sheet Lead and up to 1/16" thick, overlap all joints by 1". For Lead over 1/16" thick, apply a 2" wide batten strip at each vertical joint, fastening at top and bottom as required and/or down each edge of wooden or metal stud. We recommend you leave a minimum of 1" width of the lead batten strip without fasteners.
Place Sheet Lead against wall studs to recommended height above the floor and then securely fastened the top portion of the lead sheet to the studs with proper fasteners. Butt all Lead Sheets together at each joint for lead over 1/16" thick, then fastened sheets down to studs. Where multiple layers might be used it is recommended that you stagger all joints between the layers. Cover all fasteners that have pierced the sheet lead with Lead Tabs/disks or buttons of equal lead thickness and glue them in place with a construction adhesive. You may find where the lead overlaps or where the lead battens are placed creates a high spot. It is recommended that these areas be shimmed at the non-joint studs to insure a level wall surface prior to adding final wall coverings materials such drywall/gypsum board or plywood.
Where built-in items penetrate lead linings, provide lead shields behind those cutouts as required to maintain continuity of radiation protection. Where outlet boxes, junction boxes, ducts, conduit, and similar items prevent use of shields, provide sheet lead sleeves or linings as required.
Note: Wherever sheet lead is cut, pierced or penetrated for any reason, assure it is rectified by use of same thickness sheet lead, plugs or other desired and approved methods.
Handling & Storage
Due to the extreme weight of sheet lead, it is recommended that extra care and precautions are taken while handling lead-lined drywall. It is possible to separate the adhesive bond or create breakage of the material. It is strongly advised that you handle the drywall in a vertical position whenever possible. Store only in a flat position on supporting blocks along full length with a minimum 3" under clearance. Do not allow material to come in contact with water or moisture. Dispose of all left over material according to your local by-laws in an environmentally friendly way.
Lead Lined Drywall/Gypsum Board Or Plywood Installation Guideline
We start out by using only fire code gypsum materials for all lead-lined drywall/gypsum products. The drywall should conform to ASTM C36. Lead lining from 1/32" - 1/16" and if necessary 1/8" although not recommended due to the heavy weight and handling. A recommended thickness of a single unpierced sheet of lead in any chosen length is applied and bonded to the appropriate length of drywall/gypsum board. The drywall/gypsum boards are available in a minimum size of 4' x 8' to a maximum 4' x 10' x 5/8" minimum thickness. 1/2" thick drywall is available but not recommended.
Install leaded side of drywall/gypsum board, lath or plywood that will be used to cover the sheet lead against wooden or metal studs ensuring that you match the joints of the sheet lead used. Material must be in a vertical position with joints running from floor to ceiling as required by standards. Drill pilot holes as necessary to prevent deformation of fastener, lead or distortion of board. A minimum lead overlap of one inch is required at all joints and corners. Extend lead overhang at least one inch into all frames or openings. Sheet lead over 1/16" thick should have a minimum 2" overhang. Fastened to the wooden or metal studs, using proper drywall screws of the correct length. We suggest you use a minimum of 40 screws per 48" x 84" sheet. Spacing the screws at a maximum of 8" on center at the edges and a maximum of 12" on center at the intermediate studs. Screw drywall screws in deeper that normal into wall covering material slightly deeper than the thickness of the lead tab/disk or buttons been used. For drywall/Gypsum board or lath you may create a dimple over the screw head with a swing of your hammer head or other round ended tool to make a 1" diameter impression. Finish by gluing with a construction adhesive the lead buttons usually a minimum of a 7/8" disk over each screw head. After glue has dried out fill in and feather out with wood filler or plaster compound as needed to completely cover the screws and the protection disk devices.
Mars Metal™ recommends the use of drywall screws in all situations wherever possible. If using lead headed nails (on wood studs only), then ensure that you drive them to the proper depth and cover with drywall compound.
Installation Guidelines for Lead Lining in Floors
In certain situations, the floor and/or ceiling of your room may require radiation shielding. Mars Metal™ recommends whenever possible laying the Sheet Lead in the floor before the finished floor is poured. All joints should have a minimum of one inch overlap if multiple pieces are to be used. Overlap at each joint between pieces or apply 2" wide lead strip batten at each joint and glue in place. If multiple layers are to be used, stagger all joints between layers. Ensure your sheet lead selection allows for safe & easy handling at the site and be sure to verify floor-loading limits are adequate with the architect. The Sheet Lead should extend up each wall a minimum of two inches. Additional concrete can be applied over the lead finishing.
Lay the Sheet Lead directly over existing concrete floor then coat fully cured concrete with a sealant like varnish to prevent chemical interaction between the concrete and lead and let the sealant or varnish fully dry. Ensure the lead is free of bumps, air pockets or obstructions and lies completely flat. It is recommended before securing lead to floor that a small sample area be done first to ensure adhesion with the varnish or sealant coating. Use a construction adhesive on hard to secure spots or areas. Press or roll the sheet lead completely flat on the floor.
Prior to laying carpeting, or tile covering we recommend applying an underlay sub floor consisting of a 1/4" or heavier approved plywood or other firm solid material over the Sheet Lead. Fastened down the material with a good quality construction adhesive. Performing this extra step will help spread the floor loading out over a wider area eliminating point loading that could deform the sheet lead below. Alternatively floor anchor bolts countersunk can be used if lead buttons are used over each anchor point.
The lead protection may be obtained in two ways. If possible, it is simplest to lay sheet Lead on top of the floor slab above, allowing it to extend out at least 8" in every direction beyond the lead walls below it.
After radiation protection has been installed and equipment is functioning, the owner(s) should secure the services of a local physicist or shielding integrity contractor to check and verify the installation with appropriate monitoring devices. Correct any work that is to be deficient in radiation protection immediately prior to use of room(s). Always install in accordance with local standards and code regulations, which may vary by site location, province or state.
For health and safety reasons it is recommend there be no exposed lead after your installation is completed. Disposal of all scrap lead must be handled in a proper environmentally & responsible manner. Check with your local by-laws for the proper way of disposing of the remaining scrap lead material. Installation should comply with requirements of local, regulatory agencies and standards specified.
The following information provided should only be used as a general guideline. Mars Metal™ makes no guarantees or warranties to its accuracies. Most states and provinces have their own local by-laws, provincial, state or federal guidelines on installation & construction practices, radiation protection and proper materials to be used. Mars Metal™ will remain harmless in recommending the following guidelines and strongly suggest that you consult with your local authorities and/or by-laws before you begin your construction project.
Federal Specification QQ-L-201F Chemical Analysis